CIA! Central Intelligence Agency!!!!

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The Central Intelligence Agency is a civilian intelligence agency of the United States. The CIA reports to the Director of National Intelligence and is responsible for providing national security intelligence assessments to United States policy makers. The CIA DOES NOT make policy! The CIA is an independent source of foreign information for the US policymakers.

Location History: Technically, the CIA Headquarters is in both Langley and McLean, Virginia. McLean was founded in 1910, and was named after the man who helped the nearby towns grow. "In 1719, Thomas Lee purchased a tract of land from the sixth Lord Fairfax (for whom Fairfax County, the county in which McLean is located, was named), and he named it "Langley" after his ancestral home in England. Though Lee never lived on the land, the Langley area soon became home to many European settlers." Even though the name was changed in 1910, the name Langley is still used to describe the McLean area where the CIA is located.


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CIA Headquarters, Langley Virginia

CIA Mission:
1.) "Collecting information that reveals the plans, capabilities, and intentions of US adversaries and provides the basis for action and decision."
2.) "Conducting covert operations at the direction of the US President to prevent threats or achieve US policy objectives."
3.) "Producing timely analysis that provides insight, opportunity and warning to the US President and decision-makers charged with advancing and protecting America's interests."

Core Values:
1.) "Service- We put Country first and Agency before self. Quiet patriotism is out hallmark. We are dedicated to the mission, and we pride ourselves on our extraordinary responsiveness to the needs of our customers."
2.) "Integrity- We uphold the highest standards of conduct. We seek and speak the truth—to our colleagues and to our customers. We honor those Agency officers who have come before us and we honor the colleagues with whom we work today."
2.) "Excellence- We hold ourselves—and each other—to the highest standards. We embrace personal accountability. We reflect on our performance and learn from that reflection."

Organization:
  • Director if the Central Intelligence Agency- Head of the CIA and reports to the Director of National Intelligence. Manages the operations, budget, and personnel of the CIA and is the National Human Source Intelligence Manager. (currently Leon E. Panetta)
  • Deputy Director of the Central Intelligence Agency- Assists the Director and takes over the powers of the Director when the position is vacant, or in the Director's disability or absence. (currently Michael J. Morell)
  • Associate Deputy Director of the Central Intelligence Agency- A position created July 5, 2006 that is responsible for handling the Central Intelligence Agency on a day-to-day basis. (currently V. Sue Bromley)
  • Director of Intelligence- "The Directorate of Intelligence, the analytical branch of the CIA, is responsible for the production and dissemination of all-source intelligence analysis on key foreign issues." (currently Fran P. Moore)
  • Director of the National Clandestine Service- "The National Clandestine Service is responsible for the clandestine collection of foreign intelligence." (The current director is undercover)
  • Director for Science and Technology- "The Directorate of Science and Technology creates and applies innovative technology in support of the intelligence collection mission." (currently Glenn A. Gaffney)
  • Director of Support- "The Directorate of Support provides the mission critical elements of the Agency's support foundation: people, security, information, property, and financial operations." (currently John Pereira)
  • Director of the Center for the Study of Intelligence- "The Center for the Study of Intelligence maintains the Agency's historical materials and promotes the study of intelligence as a legitimate and serious discipline." (currently Peter S. Usowski)
  • General Counsel- "The Office of General Counsel advises the Director of the Central Intelligence Agency on all legal matters relating to his role as CIA director and is the principal source of legal counsel for the CIA."
  • Inspector General- "The Office of Inspector General is an independent office in the CIA that is headed by the Inspector General and promotes economy, efficiency, effectiveness, and accountability in the management of CIA activities by performing independent audits, inspections, investigations, and reviews of CIA programs and operations." (currently David Buckley)
  • Director of Public Affairs- "The Office of Public Affairs advises the Director of the Central Intelligence Agency on all media, public policy, and employee communications issues relating to his role as CIA director and is the CIA’s principal communications focal point for the media, the general public and Agency employees."


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CIA Organization Chart


The Just-War Doctrine
The "Just-War Doctrine" was an appropriate guide for assessing CIA activities throughout the Cold War. The covert operations carried out by the CIA are essential to the United States' security and freedom because they provide a wide range of policy options short of open war. Undercover action inside another state requires deception and secrecy, is sometimes lethal, and most likely illegal. Those covert actions may be dismissed if they meet the needs of the Just-War Doctrine. The just-war doctrine criteria includes: "just intention, just and proportional means and a probable just outcome." "Who doubts that an Allied victory in World War II--with countless covert operations and massive deception--served a just cause and was morally superior to permitting an Axis victory?"

Winston Churchill once said, "In wartime, truth is so precious that she should always be attended by a bodyguard of lies."

Two Different Agencies
The KGB and the CIA were often seen as equal by many people during the years after the Fall of the Berlin Wall. They only acknowledged that both agencies used occasional violence and deception. They did not comprehend that they had two entirely different sets of intents and consequences. While the CIA fought for freedom and democracy, the KGB fought to maintain the Soviet tyranny and expansion. "The CIA is constrained by the rule of law, while the KGB was often a law unto itself."


CIA Manual of Trickery and Deception:
The CIA had hired a professional magician named John Mulholland in 1953. Their goal was to learn his techniques of misdirection and stealth, and to combine them with the craft of espionage. The manuals were created for Project MKULTRA, and the goal was to counter the "Soviets mind-control techniques during the Cold War." The classified manuals was thought to be destroyed in 1973...but in 2007, Robert Wallace (retired CIA officer) and H. Keith Melton (intelligence historian) discovered a copy in the CIA Archives. The manual "topics include working a clandestine partner, slipping a pill into the drink of the unsuspecting, and “surreptitious removal of objects by women."

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CIA Manual
CIA Training:
  • Must be able to pass Army physical fittness test before moving on to paramilitary training.
  • Paramilitary training consists of defensive driving lessons, how to work Zodiac boats and speedboats, hand-to-hand combat, and jump school (parachuting).
  • During a paramilitary operations segment, the trainees are on their own, running through streams, and camping out every night.
  • Land navigation is when trainees navigate a huge area on their own with large backpacks on.
  • The physical fittness mainly gives the CIA Spies the confidence they need for their job.

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CIA Training
The Bay of Pigs Invasion
  • On April 17, 1961, the invasion of Cuba by 1,400 CIA-trained Cuban exiles began.
  • Invasion ends in failure, and prisoners are not released until December 1962 in return for $53 million worth of tractors and other necessities.
  • When Khrushchev agreed to give Cuba all necessary aid, Kennedy made disguised officers in Laos dress in uniform, agreed to give South Vietnam aid, and asked Congress to increase defense appropriations.
  • Kennedy also "approved a CIA-drafted program to undermine the Cuban economy (Operation Mongoose)."
  • There were also "several assassination attempts against Castro by the CIA, which acted in consort with the Mafia."








Significance and Impact:
  • Especially during the nuclear arms race, the CIA and the Soviet spies made both sides even more secretive about their science and technology advancements and discoveries. The secrecy between different countries is still in use, but keeping classified files and such secret is getting harder with technological advancements.
  • Throughout the Cold War, the United States created a large atomic energy intelligence effort against the Soviet Union, but it was countered with a sophisticated system of countermeasures. It showed that the Soviet Union held more power than had been anticipated, which led to an increase in hostilities, mistrust, and secrecy.
  • The creation of long-range technical systems led to the most successful way of tracking the Soviet Union's nuclear activities. The knowledge of the activities allowed the United States to make preparations to counterattack if necessary.
  • "Using the CIA to justify future actions, or excuse past mistakes, inevitably makes the Agency less effective and ultimately can undermine the nation’s security."




Works Sited

Jacobs, . "CIA manual of trickery and deception resurfaces."
Free Government Information. N.p., 26 Nov 2011. Web. 2 May
2011. <http://freegovinfo.info/node/2828>.

Lefever, Ernest. Espionage and Intelligence Gathering.
Farmington Hills, MI: Greenhaven Press, 2004. 21-23. Print.

Morgan, Lindsay. "CIA Physical Training."
VideoJug. VideoJug Corporation Limited, n.d. Web. 2 May
2011. <http://www.videojug.com/interview/cia-physical-training-2>.

Office of Public Affairs, . Central Intelligence Agency.
Office of Public Affairs, 4 Feb 2011. Web. 2 May
2011.https://www.cia.gov/index.html.

Powaski, Ronald E. THE COLD WAR The United States
and the Soviet Union 1917-1991. New York, NY:
Oxford University Press, 1998. 136-137. Print.